Long, damp, cold and muddy winters along with simple forage diets have prepared Normande cattle for the worst. Today Normandes spread from the Andes to the Canadian plains and the tropics and are able to endure a wide range of temperatures. Because the Normande has not been selected solely on one character, it has remained a sound and strong cow with exceptional qualities usually lost by specialized breeds, such as fertility, calving ease, excellent feet and legs and overall hardiness. Its thick curly winter hair insures a good protection against the cold while eye rings are effective against the sun in the summer. The breed also shows remarkable docility which makes the handling of bulls very easy. In addition, Normande presents exceptional feed conversion rates continually improved with ongoing selection. Finally, raised on grass for centuries, the Normande shows outstanding grazing ability. Its fertility, a major issue in modern dairies, is above the one of specialized dairy breeds. Stay tune for more information on the various studies that have been done.